American Indians and
the Edgar Cayce Readings
By John Fuhler
Eleven thousand years ago, an event that would forever change the face of North America occurred: a mother with an exceptionally rare genetic marker bore a daughter, who passed along the same genetic marker to her daughters. This particular genetic marker (Haplogroup X2) directly links the peoples of Northeastern North America to the peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. Currently the actual migration route by which this was achieved is unknown inasmuch as contemporary archaeology is concerned. What can be demonstrated by geneticists is the populations with this specific genetic marker migrated out of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean into Eurasia and North America around or after the Last Glacial Maximum. Based on the nature of the mutations distinguishing the American from the Middle Eastern form of this genetic marker, these populations arrived in North America no later than 11,000 years ago.
Distribution of haplogroup X
Of great importance to this discussion is that the American Haplogroup X2 is linked to the Western Eurasian version of this marker. Haplogroup X is unknown in Siberian or East Asian populations; and the eastern-most mutation of the marker, occurring in the Altay Region of Central Asia, didn’t arrive there until some 4,300 years after Haplogroup X2 had appeared in America.i
Until recently American anthropologists held firmly to the hypothesis that all indigenous American peoples were descended from one group of Asian people who crossed the land bridge over the Bering Sea during the last Ice Age. This hypothesis is being challenged on all sides, and not only by the genetic data, but also by archaeological and linguistic data.ii
|Source Wikipedia: DNA
In a recent article in the Occasional Papers of the Epigraphic Society, data corroborative of the geneticists’ findings demonstrated the intimate relationship between the languages of the Algonquian peoples of Northeastern North America, and the Afro-Asiatic languages of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Using several measures of linguistic affinity, the genetic relationship of the two language families was proven. Among the data given, it was demonstrated that the similarities between the Menominee and Hebrew pronominal affixes being due to chance is 0.000005. This greatly exceeds the measure of 0.00001 required to establish a (linguistic) genetic relationship. Another example was a comparison of the Proto-Afro-Asiatic and Proto-Algonquian pronominal systems. The probability of the similarities between the two proto-languages being due to chance is 0.00000625. Again, the genetic relationship is affirmed. And as if these two measures weren’t enough, a statistical analysis of two sets of words, one Egyptian, the other Ojibwa, each set representing a group of words derived from a common root, revealed the probability of these being similar by chance is 0.000000039!iii
American anthropology cannot explain these relationships. Prior to the discovery of Haplogroup X, there was no serious consideration of the possibility of a trans-Atlantic relationship between Old and New World peoples. Even today it is so challenging for conventional archaeologists to explain the genetic relationship, several scholars continue to cleave to the old hypothesis of the trans-Beringia crossing. They choose to believe a group of adventuresome individuals, the women bearing the Haplogroup X2 marker, traveled some 10,000 km. (6,000 mi.) from the Altay Region of Central Asia to the Western Great Lakes of America, the heart of the genetic marker in America, without leaving a telltale genetic trace along the way!
An Ojibwe named Boy Chief,
by the noted American painter George Catlin
The questions arise, then, from where did these trans-Atlantic populations come, and how did they arrive at their final destinations? The Edgar Cayce readings provide tantalizing clues. Before embarking upon the explication of specific readings, it must be kept in mind that Mr. Cayce’s contemporary archaeologists believed the Algonquian Indians had only entered the continent about 366 CE!iv Their apparent route was across the Bering Strait, down through the Yukon, and then across the Great Plains, all on foot. Since that time, generations of American archaeologists and anthropologists have worked diligently to make the data fit the assumption that all Western Hemisphere peoples came in one wave across the Bering Strait during the last Ice Age through the hypothetically ice-free corridor. Against this backdrop we find Edgar Cayce presenting very different information.
In the readings, the peopling of the Americas was accomplished by several different mechanisms, including Creation, as well as multiple waves of migration. The immigrants came from Lemuria, Atlantis, the Promised Land, etc.
The appearance of man…was in five different places…at the same time. The white race…in the Carpathian basin, the yellow in Tibet, the red in Atlantis, the brown in Lemuria, the black in Africa. (294-202 Report)
Before the final destruction…many of the inhabitants migrated to adjoining countries. The Inca and Aztec were descendants…as were the American Indians… (364-6 Report )
The eastern seaboard was the coastal region of Atlantis… (364-13 Report)
…during those periods…those peoples that were Lost Tribes came into the land…
How did the Lost Tribes reach this country? Boats. (Edgar Cayce Reading 5750-1)
Numerous possibilities for dispersion of the Haplogroup X2 genetic marker are suggested in these readings. But several questions arise. During which of the migrations did the populations in question arrive at their current locations? Why, given the frequency of the Atlantis-Yucatan Peninsula relationship mentioned in the readings, is this genetic marker focused on the Great Lakes, and especially the western end of Lake Superior? If the Lost Tribes were the source of the genetic marker, why do the geneticists not find a more recent arrival time, which conforms to the time frame given in the readings? Inasmuch as the Algonquian Language Family is concerned, its entrance into North America appears to have been much farther to the north relative to the Yucatan.v Why are there no readings identifying this area as a place of entrance of the migrating Atlanteans? Or are we to assume that the Atlanteans were already living along the Eastern Seaboard?
On the other side of the Atlantic, the hypothetical progenitor of Haplogroup X2 occurs across North Africa. Is this a vestige of the first emigration to the Pyrenees and Morocco mentioned in Reading 364-6? Does the occurrence of Haplogroup X2 in North America represent the migrations which preceded the final destruction of Atlantis about 12,000 years ago? Remember, it was this wave of emigrants whom Edgar Cayce identified as forebears of the Inca, Aztec, and American Indians.
Many of Edgar Cayce’s statements about the peopling of North America, and the Western Hemisphere in general, have only recently and coincidentally been corroborated by archaeologists. It has become increasingly difficult for the archeologists to make the data fit the paradigm.vi The field of linguistics is challenging the conventional wisdom, as well. And much of what the linguists are learning is confirming the evidence in the readings. Given that American archaeology is still in its infancy, one can only imagine what remains to be discovered.
John Fuhler has been involved in the field of alternative medicine for more than 25 years. He received his BA in anthropology from the University of Illinois and studied in Glasgow, Scotland, and Portland, Ore. As an amateur archaeologist, he participated in projects in Ariz., Calif., Hawaii, N.M., and Wis.; reporting discoveries in Ore. and Scotland. His tribal affiliations include: Saxon, Friesian, Bohemian, Irish (O'Meagher clan), and Wyandot. He volunteers his skills with organizations supporting the homeless, forest services, and families. He enjoys reading the bible in Greek and Latin.
i Reidia, et al. Am J Hum Genet 2003 November 73(5):1178-1190 (Published online Oct 20, 2003: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/issues/120394/).
ii Cf. Gugliotta, G. The First Americans. Smithsonian. February 2013 43(10):38-47.
iii Fuhler, J.T. Occasional Papers of the Epigraphic Society. 2007. Vol. 25. pp59ff.
iv Voegelin, C.F, et al. 1954. Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians. Indianapolis. 277.
v Siebert, F.T. 1967. The Original Home of the Proto-Algonquian People. In Contributions to Anthropology Linguistics I (Algonquian). Anthropological Series 78. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 214:12-47. Rogers, R.A. 1985. Glacial Geography and Native North American Languages. In Quaternary Research 23:130-137.
vi The degree to which American archaeologists have gone to make new data fit the established paradigm is demonstrated by the volume of data which are rejected by them. The reader is encouraged to find and explore Forbidden Archaeology: the Hidden History of the Human Race, by M.A. Cremo and R.L. Thompson. One of the reports included therein documents the Calico Site findings of Louis S. B. Leakey, whose name is synonymous with anthropology worldwide, but whose work in California doesn’t even merit a footnote in most textbooks.
A Mother's Prayer
By Carolyn Kresse Murray
On a cool December morning, two days before Christmas 1998, Daniel joined our family. Motherhood was my happy place. My daughter was turning three years old in a few days, and I was ready for this baby boy. When I gave birth the first time, I finally knew what people were talking about when they used the word bliss. I’d never felt such complete satisfaction in a job or relationship before. This was round two.
That same afternoon our pediatrician stopped in to meet him. From the other side of the room she took measurements, something that had already been done in the delivery room, and spoke to my husband. I heard a word and knew immediately what it meant. It was a life-changing word.
“There’s some relative microcephaly here,” Dr. Barbara was saying. I’m a Registered Nurse, and Daniel’s father is an MD whose specialty is brain injury. He knew the meaning of the word, too. We were both stunned. This second shot at parenting would be very different from the first.
A diagnosis of microcephaly means that the brain is small. Daniel’s head circumference was on the growth charts, but just barely. His height and weight were well within the tenth percentile, so in comparison to the rest of him, his head was microcephalic. Most of the time microcephaly is equated with mental retardation and a shortened lifespan. It’s generally a symptom of a larger issue, and many genetic disorders have micro as a feature.
During our hospital stay I tried very hard to erase that diagnosis. I questioned other doctors on staff. One early morning, mid-way through the night shift, I was awake in the special care nursery where Daniel was moved because of low blood sugars and jaundice. I quizzed the neonatologist about the measurements. I told him our pediatrician’s opinion that my newborn was microcephalic, and asked him what his thoughts were. He said that, no, a head circumference of 12.5 inches was well within normal range. This doctor had a big title; he had to know what he was talking about. Ha! Dr. Barbara was wrong!
When I reported this to her the next day, she wasn’t bothered that I challenged her suspicions. That’s not her style. She’s a smart doctor with sharp instincts. She stood by her observation that Daniel was microcephalic, and said we’d talk about it more when we went home. Still, I scratched out the word microcephaly on his discharge papers before signing them. I’m nothing if not a stubborn mama.
A month later we met for consultations with a genetics specialist and a neurologist. It was official. I couldn’t scribble away the microcephaly word any longer.
The early days were rough. Physically, I was raw from lack of sleep and emotionally I panicked. I imagined the worst and didn’t know if I was up to the task. No one could give us a prognosis since his only diagnosis was microcephaly. He didn’t gain weight no matter what we tried, and he cried all the time.
What did this mean, and would I be up to the challenge? I imagined him staying exactly this way forever, with me holding and rocking a wailing 45 year old baby. I unraveled.
I needed to learn new skills this time around. I didn’t want to. I wasn’t happy about it. I also knew I had no choice. This was not a repeat of my first experience with being a mother. I couldn’t do this if I didn’t gain some spiritual and emotional footing. I remembered the months leading up to Daniel’s birth. It was important to find peace in my soul, and remember that he was exactly where he needed to be, with the body and brain intended for him.
Before Daniel was conceived, I was working on a proposal for a book on conscious conception, the idea that we can invite a soul into our lives with intention and prayer. My first book, Walking the Spiritual Walk, had a chapter entitled “Awaiting the Gift” that touched on that concept.
In my research on the way other cultures prepare for pregnancy, I read a book called The Conception Mandala: Creative Techniques for Inviting a Child into Your Life by Mark Olsen and Samuel Avital. Mandala is a Sanskrit word meaning sacred circle, and they’re sometimes used in Buddhist meditation.
In late 1997, I tried my hand at a conception mandala. I drew a giant circle on a poster board with a rainbow border. The circle had four sections within it, each with pictures, poems and prayers inside. In one of the sections, I wrote the words “Angel Baby” and glued a picture of a child-angel sitting on a sliver of a moon staring at the stars (a few years later, Debra Snyder, author of Intuitive Parenting and president of The Heartglow Center, invited me to join an online support group for mothers of children with similar disabilities called AngelBabyMoms). It was a little out there, maybe, but prayerful, and something I took seriously.
I pasted a little piece of my daughter Melody’s pink and blue newborn hospital cap onto the page. I wrote lines from favorite poems, including Wordsworth’s “Intimations of Immortality”:
Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting;
The Soul that rises with us, our life’s Star
Hath had elsewhere its setting
And cometh from afar
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God, who is our home:
Heaven lies about us in our infancy
Thinking about the mandala, and the idea that we’d prepared for him and invited him into our lives gave me hope. I still had my doubts, though.
It’s in my nature to doubt, but also to believe. I’m willing to explore and be a little far out, but I am skeptical and down-to-earth as well. These polarities are part of who I am, and they don’t diminish the faith I have in the soul journey we’re on. Daniel chose us as parents. His soul knew what it was doing. He is here to teach and learn the art of loving. We each are.
It’s been a long time since I first heard the word microcephaly. My marriage ended for reasons unrelated to Daniel’s challenges. He is loved dearly by both of us, but it has been up to me to maintain his care. There’ve been lots of specialists, many hours of school and therapy, medications for the seizures that started at one year of age (also eased by following the Edgar Cayce seizure protocol), but no definitive diagnosis. Yet, it wouldn’t define who he is or what he’s about, anyway.
Daniel is gentle. His disabilities are severe and he requires full-care in every way. But his spirit is intact. The look in his eyes and the impishness in his smile are exquisite. I can see and appreciate his life. Daniel’s path is his own. I don’t know exactly why he chose to come into the world in a body that would always be dependent on others for care. I do know that he radiates joy.
The mandala I made in 1997 is still in my bedroom. The words from that invitation are fading, but clear. I pull it out from time to time to remind myself that our lives do have purpose. Microcephaly would not be the final word.
On the left side of the mandala, there is a Star of David enclosing a cross. The words, Savior Jesua, are on either side of the star, with the prayer “Be the Guide” underneath. Below is a simple request: We invite you, we bless you, and we ask that you join our home, Great Soul.
I asked and he answered. When I wrote and prayed for divine love and joy to be the central purpose of my life, I meant it. When Daniel got the invitation, he responded with acceptance. It’s that simple. It’s that profound.
Carolyn Kresse Murray discovered Edgar Cayce during childhood, and became a lifelong student of the readings. She is a registered nurse who works for the public school system. She is the author of Walking the Spiritual Walk, and her work has appeared in Nursing Magazine, the American Journal of Nursing, and Millikin Quarterly. Carolyn lives with her two teenagers and husband Rich in Jacksonville, Florida. You can read her other blogs at MyDanielsGift.blogspot.com.
The Great Pyramid’s Secret Code
By Timothy Milby
Most people know that the Great Pyramid has four sides. Many assume that they are flat. What is not well known is that the pyramid’s sides are not perfectly flat. And they never have been. At the time they were completed, the sides were covered with casing-stones made of white Tura limestone, which gave the finished Pyramid a smooth surface. Most of the original casing stones have been removed. The process of removing them started about 700 years ago. Originally, they were removed so that they could be used in the construction of other buildings in the Cairo vicinity. The remaining core masonry blocks are set in a stair-step fashion.
|William Matthew Flinders Petrie,
The fact that the sides of the Great Pyramid are not perfectly flat and straight was discovered 130 years ago by Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie. Flinders Petrie is known as the father of Egyptology. Petrie, a skillful surveyor, decided to do a precise survey of the Great Pyramid’s base and structure and also make thorough measurements of the pyramid’s interior chambers, passageways, and features. While doing his survey, Petrie noticed that the middle of each base-side of the pyramid’s core masonry was “distinctly hollowed in” (some 30 inches) instead of straight from corner to corner, and that “each side has a sort of groove” that ran from the top down the middle of the sides.
From the outer edges, the surface slants slightly inward toward the center, making a vertical center-line from the apex down the middle of each triangular side. Near the bottom, the center-line branches off left and right to form a triangle inset at the bottom center of each base-side.
Each side of the Great Pyramid was built with these angles in it, and some photographs of the pyramid show them. They are most visible when the sun makes shadows on the angles of the sides.
Why did the ancients build the pyramid’s sides angled in towards the center-line instead of making the sides perfectly flat? I believe there was a logical reason, which I will explain.
When Petrie began to do his survey of the Great Pyramid, he cleared away the sand and rubble where the four cornerstones had once sat. He found the rectangular flat depressions or sockets that were carved in the bedrock at the four corners; the casing-cornerstones sat in these corner-sockets until they were removed hundreds of years ago with most of the other casing-stones. Petrie measured the distance from the end of one corner-socket to the end of the next corner-socket at the other end of the pyramid’s base-side. He measured all four sides in this manner.
The four corner-sockets defined the pyramid’s perimeter around the base. When Petrie’s lengths of the four sides (defined by the sockets) are added together it equals 36,521 inches. That is significant because 36,525 is the number of days in the year x 100 (there are 365.25 days in the year). The ancient builders made the pyramid’s base perimeter around the four corner-sockets to equal the number of days in the year (x 100).
The distance of 36,525 inches around the base perimeter is also significant because a half-minute of longitude at the earth’s equator is equal to 36,525 inches. The earth is divided with longitude and latitude lines. The modern calculation of one-half minute longitude at the equator is 36,523 inches. It is a reasonable deduction, as I see it, that the builders deliberately made the base perimeter equal to one-half minute longitude.
Petrie found the remaining casing-stones of the Great Pyramid sitting on the base-platform. Casing-stones remained at the bottom of the pyramid in the middle of the four base-sides. Petrie projected the casing base-line down each side of the pyramid to the corners. Thus he obtained a square base-line around the pyramid, which seemed to show the original base-line of the pyramid. But his projected square base-line did not go to the far ends of the corner-sockets as one would have expected.
Petrie assumed that the original casing base-line was straight from one pyramid corner to the next corner. But with his survey, he discovered that the core-masonry blocks in the middle of the base-sides were set back some 30 inches more than the corners of the Pyramid’s core-masonry; which made the middle of the base-sides’ core-masonry slightly “hollowed in.” As for the casing-stones that covered the core blocks, Petrie assumed that the casing-stones in the middle of the base-sides had been thicker than the casing-stones near the corners (those near the Pyramid’s corners were no longer there), thereby making the casing base-line straight from corner to corner.
He was wrong. Petrie (along with everyone else) did not realize that the original casing base-sides were not perfectly straight to the corners. Actually, the casing-stones followed the angles of the core-masonry. Near the corners of the Great Pyramid the original casing began to slightly turn outward to the outside corners of the corner-sockets where the casing-cornerstones sat.
Petrie’s measurement of the four projected sides added together equals 36,275 inches around the base perimeter. Petrie’s base-perimeter distance is the same as the distance of one-half minute of latitude at the equator. The modern calculation of one-half minute of latitude at the equator is 36,278 inches.
The Great Pyramid’s constructors built in the smaller projected square base to show one-half minute of equatorial latitude. So the builders showed in the pyramid’s casing-base perimeter both one-half minute longitude and latitude at the equator. In effect the pyramid was a smaller square base inside the larger perimeter—a smaller pyramid inside a larger pyramid.
Article text and drawings Copyright ©2012 Timothy Milby
Timothy Milby is a long-time A.R.E. member and author of the book The Great Pyramid’s Secret Code and The Road to Atlantis: The Pyramid’s Amazing Mathematic Code Revealed. Milby has studied the Great Pyramid extensively—the design of its chambers and passageways and its many features and details. His website can be found at AtlantisAndTheGreatPyramid.com. You can reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Understanding Alkaline-Acid Balance
By Genevieve M. Haller, DC
Excerpt from the Circulating File “Acidity-Alkalinity”
discourse on the subject of the alkaline-acid balance can be either relatively
simple or endlessly complicated. This ranges from the simple advice of eating
foods that are “20 percent acid-producing to 80 percent alkaline-producing” in
order to keep an equilibrium in the body, as indicated in the Edgar Cayce
readings, (540-11) to the opinion presently held by some physicians that alkaline-acid
imbalance may be associated with degenerative disease.
Primarily, the condition of our blood must always be slightly alkaline, and a pH of 7.4 is
considered normal. (pH is the symbol used in expressing hydrogen ion
concentration. pH 7 is the neutral point. Above 7 alkalinity increases; below 7
acidity increases.) Any significant variation from this can spell death, so it
is necessary for the body to keep the blood at this level in spite of the
combinations of food we eat, the condition of our nervous system, and habit
patterns and local environment to which the body is exposed. However, there are
various tissues and organs of the body that vary in pH, and it seems they go
through continually alternating cycles from acid to alkaline in order for the
body to maintain the proper pH of the blood. Consequently, some body tissues
and fluids can be checked easily via secretions of saliva or urine in measuring
Dr. George Crile, in his book, A Bipolar Theory of Living Processes,
explains that when cells from the liver and brain were stained, the nucleus
stained acid, while the cytoplasm around the nucleus stained alkaline. In other
words, a healthy cell is composed of a proper relationship between acid and
alkaline; if it becomes too acid or too alkaline, it dies. In exhaustion and
death, or lack of sleep, the differential stainability of the cells is
decreased, or disappears. Thus, in a sense, death is associated with loss of
the alkaline-acid balance within the individual cells of the organism.
All life is composed of this duality, which must have started with creation itself,
and with the solar systems attracting and repelling each other on the basis of
positive and negative electrical charges. As the Chinese might say, everything
is “Yin or Yang,” positive or negative, masculine or feminine, day or night;
and these are the creative forces that produce life itself. Dr. Crile says the
brain, as the positive pole, sends out energy to various parts of the body,
which are negative, but which step up energy to positive and thus send impulses
back to the brain. There are various positive-negative relationships between
organs; and most significantly from the Edgar Cayce readings we are told:
In the body we have two poles acting to the living body, the
kidneys and the liver; the active principles are the same as two poles of
electricity in the body, those which give life to the body. The liver is the
stronger, excretive and secretive. The kidneys secreting, taking from the system
the impurities. That is the use of these organs. (4909-1)
there is an incoordination between these organs there is a disease potential.
The human body is a bi-polar electro-chemical mechanism, in which the
individual cells keep the flame of life burning. This continual energy
conversion (oxidation) supplies the electricity which is the vital force of the
Recommendations for Keeping Balance
A normal diet is about twenty percent acid to eighty percent
From the Edgar Cayce readings, and the consensus of many nutritionists, this is good advice. Dr. Bernard Jensen (nutritionist and owner of Hidden Valley Health Ranch, Escondido, Calif.) often suggests that four vegetables, two fruits, one protein, and one starch daily will provide this percentage.
The next question might be, What are acid foods, or alkaline foods? Unfortunately, foods do not react in the body as they do in a test tube, so, in reality, it is not always the foods eaten that determine the alkalinity or acidity, but what the body does with them. For example, when citrus fruits containing citric acid are oxidized in the body, they react as alkaline producers rather than acid. Even the tomato is non-acid forming (584-5). Yet dried prunes, plums, cranberries, and canned pineapple are acid-forming in the body according to Dr. George Wilson. He also notes that oatmeal, rice and whole wheat (alkaline foods) are oxidized by the body into acids. However, the acid of vinegar and hydrochloric acid are considered end products, and are not changed by the body.
Involved in this creation of acids and alkalines in the body, is the process of electrolytic combustion or oxidation, which, Dr. Wilson explains, takes place in the intercellular fluids. Its purpose is to burn up poisons, which may come from starches, sweets, fats and proteins that have been incompletely digested. Passing into the bloodstream, they become a part of the intercellular fluids. In such a state they clog intercellular spaces and cause stases, the forerunner of disease.
Information on checking the pH balance of the body was provided in the readings:
A general activity for a body in much of a normal condition is to
keep the acidity and the alkalinity in a proper balance. The best manner to
indicate this is to test the alkalinity or acidity of the body through the
salivary gland membranes, or by taking litmus paper in the mouth. This also may
be indicated through the urine. (540-11)
to overcome over-acidity were provided in the readings as well:
Whenever there is disturbance with this,
if it is in the glands themselves (salivary...and you checked with litmus and
found an acidity...pink color), then take citrocarbonate, that is, if it is
indicated in the salivary glands that there is an acidity, then take a small
quality of citrocarbonate. If the acidity is indicated through the kidneys, or
from the urine itself, then drink a little of the carbonated waters, (sodium
carbonate, being alkaline) as would be indicated with Coca-Cola—but that which
is bottled is the better, [In general, the readings strongly recommend the cola
syrup with plain water] or use a little of the Watermelon Seed Tea (alkaline). (540-11)
additional information, see the Cayce Health Database on the Basic Cayce
Genevieve Haller, DC,
(deceased) is former Director of Chiropractic Research for A.R.E. She served on
the Board of Trustees and participated in many conferences. This article was
excerpted from the April-June 2013 issue of Venture
Inward our member magazine and is in the Circulating File
“Acidity-Alkalinity,” available to members at EdgarCayce.org/members.
Edgar Cayce’s A.R.E. blog offers opinion pieces from contributors with a wide variety of backgrounds. These opinions are valued and create points of discussion. Opinions expressed in our blog may not necessarily represent the opinion of A.R.E.